Friday, March 30, 2012
Mike Butler: $162.67m more paid under treaty
For those seeking an understanding of the financial redress paid, the cultural redress given, special deals, who the tribes are, how big, where located, and their activities in our short history, read on.
Ngāti Manawa received financial redress of $12.2-million as part of the Central North Island Forest Lands, plus interest, $2.6-million for special projects, the right to buy four land bank properties, the right to buy five deferred selected properties, and a 50-year right of first refusal for one surplus Crown property in their area. Cultural redress included the transfer of five sites totalling 744ha, the vesting in fee simple of nine wāhi tapu sites, and the vesting of three schools in fee simple subject to a lease-back. Four sites were vested jointly in Ngāti Manawa and Ngāti Whare, statutory acknowledgements over five sites, four waterways, overlay classifications and transfer and gift back of Tāwhiuau (a mountain), and deeds of recognition regarding Pukehinau and Te Kōhua, and over four rivers. River redress includes a right of first refusal on five freshwater quota river fish, and a framework for agreement on a management system for the Rangitaiki River, and more.
Ngāti Manawa is a central North Island iwi of 3500 members based in Murupara that had little contact with the government until the 1860s. The tribe backed the government during the 1865 wars but their crops and dwellings sustained significant damage in the fighting and the government paid no compensation. Disputes arose over leases with the government, attendance at the Native Land Court caused financial hardship, and tribe members sold large areas of land.
Ngāti Whare received financial redress of $15.7-million already provided in the 2008 Central North Island Settlement, plus $1.976-million in cultural redress giftings, $1-million for the Project Whirinaki Regeneration Trust, and $200,000 to restore the Te Whaiti Court House. Other cultural redress includes the transfer of seven culturally significant sites totalling 36.2ha, the return of five wāhi tapu sites totalling 10.2952ha, the joint vesting of four sites totalling 13ha in Ngati Whare and Ngati Manawa, statutory acknowledgements over two sites and Whirinaki River, and a deed of recognition over areas of Urewera National Park and Whirinaki River
Ngāti Whare, a central North Island tribe of 3400 members that did not sign the treaty, supported Te Kooti against the government. The tribe’s grievances involve restrictions on land use and land alienation, the Urewera District Native Reserves Act 1896, Crown corporatisation, cessation of indigenous forest logging and the return of Minginui without providing sufficient resources.
Financial redress includes $90-million plus interest. Six Crown properties will be vested in Ngāti Porou, which will buy Ruatoria and Tokomaru Licensed Crown Forest Land, receive a two-year deferred selection purchase and leaseback of 21 Crown properties, a 170-year right of first refusal to buy surplus Crown-owned and Housing New Zealand Corporation properties within the Ngāti Porou area, and the return of surplus Crown properties subject to Public Works Act offer-back requirements. Cultural redress includes a payment of $20-million plus interest, a strategic conservation partnership, 15 sites totalling 5898ha to be vested in Ngāti Porou with DOC to manage some sites, statutory acknowledgements over the Waiapu and Uawa Rivers and their tributaries, the Tūranganui River and the Waimata River. The tribe enters into relationship protocols with Conservation, Economic Development, and Culture and Heritage
Ngāti Porou, which is with 72,000 members one of the largest tribes in New Zealand, and which is based on the East Coast north of Gisborne, signed the treaty, retained control of their affairs until 1865, when some fought for the Maori king, some fought for Pai Marire (Hauhaus), and some for the government. Much land was sold after the Native Land Court awarded title. The tribe objected to government administration of development schemes and numerous land takings for public works.
Financial redress includes $20-million plus interest, which includes the value of any Crown forest land purchased. Thirteen Crown properties will be vested in Ngäti Pähauwera, including Mohaka Crown Forest Land, Rawhiti Station, five surplus Wairoa District Council properties. The tribe has a 100-year right of first refusal on surplus Crown properties in the area. The Te Heru o Türeia Conservation Area will be vested in Ngäti Pahauwera as part of cultural redress. The tribe retains 160ha at the summit of Te Heru o Türeia and 52.9ha by the Mohaka River, most of which is to be gifted to people of NZ. Sixteen sites totalling 1087ha will be transferred to the tribe that receives a statutory acknowledgement over part of the Earthquake Slip Conservation Area. Ngäti Pähauwera will manage hangi stone removal from the Mohaka River.
Ngāti Pahauwera, a tribe claiming 6000 members, whose tribal area extends south of Wairoa on the East Coast, north of Napier, and inland to Lake Waikaremoana, signed the treaty and began to sell land to the government from 1851. Te Kooti led a force that attacked the two Pahawera fortified villages at Mohaka in April 1869, killing 56 Ngäti Pähauwera men, women, and children as well as a number of Pakeha settlers in the area. Tuhoe were the main killers, according to historian James Cowan. Pahauwera blame the government for not protecting them from the dreadful carnage visited upon them. Te Kooti was never tried for involvement in these killings and was later pardoned. His descendents are in line for compensation through the Rongowhakaata settlement awaiting legislation. No compensation is available for the Lavin family and Alfred Cooper murdered at Mohaka because non-Maori don’t qualify for the Waitangi Tribunal process, and, after all, no one survived.
For Ngati Maniapoto the legislation includes setting up a co-governance and co-management arrangement of the Waipa River between the Government and the iwi. The tribe received a settlement in relation to the Waikato River in 2010, receiving $10-million co-management funding, and $1-million a year for 19 years.
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